COMPARE and CONTRAST the similarities and differences between the tramadol/morphine (oral) with respect to pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.


This assignment is in essay format with the word count limited to 1500 words. The word count does not include the essay title and reference list. This task is designed to familiarise you with the key pharmacological concepts.

Use the non-proprietary (non-commercial) names for the drug pair throughout the essay. The drug delivery route is shown in brackets. Apply resources such as journal articles, medical and scientific text books, and scientific web based resources (e.g. NIH website, American Heart Association website) to support your essay content. DO NOT use commercial non-government websites.

It is recommended to self-check your essay assignment by using the marking rubric provided.

The essay assignment will comprise;

1. A brief descriptive single short sentence title of approximately 10 words (see marking rubric for criteria);
2. Introduce both drugs and specify their actions and indications in a single paragraph;
3. The pharmacokinetics of each drug by comparing and contrasting the following;
a. Brief administration route of the drugs and then detail how the drugs are absorbed
b. Bioavailability and half-life of the drugs
c. Distribution of the drugs in the body
d. Metabolism of the drugs
e. Excretion of the drugs
4. Detail and compare the pharmocodynamics of the drugs. Include the following information:
a. Compare/Contrast the mechanism of action of the drugs. If this is currently unknown, what is it thought to be?
b. Explain how the mechanism of action of the drug is related to the side effects & potential adverse events.
Writing format. See notes under Presentation.

This assignment is designed to develop your ability to identify and communicate scientific details in a concise written format, using appropriate citation and reference page. The word limit is a maximum and markers are not required to read beyond the set word limit. This is in essay format and subheadings, dot points, figures and tables are NOT to be used. Remember that you are required to compare and contrast the characteristics of the drugs not just list the characteristics of each. The assignment should be written in a fluent and economical sentence structure in paragraph format and include correctly formatted citation and reference page according to APA referencing style. A copy of the APA Referencing guide is available in the Interact site and the citation and reference list formatting must rigidly adhere to this style (Marks will be deducted for incorrect formatting). The reference list page (in APA format) should follow the main section and would not be expected to contain more than 6 references including at least one recent journal article relevant to the topic.

The assignment file must be submitted via EASTS in *.doc, *.docx, or *.rtf format (not PDF), and include a word count below the references list.

The purpose of this assessment item is to allow students to explore in greater detail important subject content areas.

This assessment item assesses the following learning outcomes provided in this subject outline (p.3):
* define common pharmacological terms;
* describe the four pharmacokinetic processes (absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination);

Marking criteria
Marking criteria (total /20)

Professional Knowledge: 16 marks given for the descriptive title, the introduction, comparison of the drug pairs with respect to their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics & side effects.
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