Paper, Order, or Assignment Requirements
ELA 200 English Language and Literacy 2
Creating a Resource for Teaching Reading (60%)
Students are expected to create a resource for teaching reading in a context of their choice. The resource should be written in PowerPoint, and should include the following key components:
Some rules and study tips for module 1:
If you plan to create an online portfolio, here are links to tutorials teaching how to create a Google website (Google Sites which are free). Many tutorials you can find on YTube.
Focus questions for Module One:
What is the purpose/goal of reading?
How do we make meaning?
What do we ‘do’ when we read?
Why do we read?
What do we read?
What do we already know and understand about readers and reading?
It is often useful to start off with what we already know and it will be important to keep your notes to guide your own learning and reading, and so that you can go back and reflect on your knowledge over the course of this unit. One useful knowledge organiser is a KWHL (What do I know, What do I want to know, How will I learn, What did I learn) chart but you might also find ta graphic organisers useful in getting you started, they are only a suggestion and there are many different websites you can look at if you can’t find a graphic organiser to suit you. You might also find some of the author’s comments interesting to consider as you begin your reading about reading but for the moment they are something you could come back to at a later date, here we are really interested in how you mightorganise your ideas.
Take a moment, look over the focus questions and engage in the unit materials, all with the aim to assist you to identify the qualities which make up a “reader”. While engaging in readings and Collaborate materials, start writing down what you think makes up a godo reader. Do not be guided by your assumption. Look at them critically in the light of the materials you read, listen to, or watch online. When you have finished – organise your ideas a little more using some key words or headings you see in your lists/ideas. Then write down a definition of a reader, it should be no more than a short paragraph. Your definition should tell you and others what a good reader does that makes him or her effective.
The videos and texts for this week focus on becoming a reader.
Explore and Play
What does the process of becoming a reader involve? Where does reading start? What are the prerequisites for becoming a reader?
Some pertinent points are made about:
The readings below are quite old but if you wish to learn how people used and and actually still continue thinking about learning to read, I encourage you to browse through these readings, but do so while exercising critical thikning.
Michael Pressley (2006) has been criticised strongly by key literacy researchers. Still his textbook was widely used and it is always worthwhile to see what he thought and wrote about. Pressley makes some points about the way children make meaning from text and the active process of reading: readers know the purpose for reading, readers make conscious efforts to link prior knowledge to make meaning and interpret text and how good readers actively monitor their understanding as they read. Like Sousa, Pressley talks about the role of eye tracking within this cognitive process of decoding and describes, in detail, the attributes of successful readers.
This reading by Kemp, Max (1980) http://ereadings.cdu.edu.au/eserv/cdu:20576/doc.pdf builds on the previous two readings, and will be very useful when we look at diagnosing reading problems and assessment, by not simply talking about skilled readers but also proposes some insight into students who might struggle to learn to read. Again you will need to consider the links between these readings and summarise your ideas and understandings of the goals of reading and what we do when we read.
Winch et al (2011) Chapter One: A balanced view of reading. In this chapter Winch provides a clear overview of the global and national research on reading and introduces some key terms and definitions.
Winch et al 2011 Chapter 3: Oral Language. As Sousa and Olson point out humans have been speaking for thousands of years, it is ‘hard wired’ into our brains (Sousa 2005, Olson 1994). Thus we want to make clear the importance of oral language and oracy, the joint process of listening and talking, in effective approaches to learning and teaching reading (Winch et al 2011 pg 31). In this chapter you might link to your prior knowledge from ETL 112 or ELA 100 as we review the components of oral language and make connections between oral language and reading. On page fifty six Winch talks about the mode continuum, a concept we will spend some more time in the coming weeks as we look at ‘What is text?’.
The Olson reading gives a very interesting history of reading:
And this reading by Wood provides rich introduction into learning theories in educational settings and may assist you in making links about what we know of learning in general and learning to read.
Study tips for module 2:
Focus Questions for Module Two:
What are texts?
Attached is a PowerPoint which helps introduce the concept of text as a cultural artefact. Implications are made to pedagogy. This is to illustrate how the concept of text we use affects the way we work with texts in our literacy classes. You can expand the ideas presented in the PPT and see how they would work for you in your context. The aim is that you consider the ideas presented in the PPT and, in assessment task, take a position to them. You can expand on those or take a counter view. For your assignments, use the documents attached below as conceptual guides. Browse through the literature listed below as they are texts written by prominent scholars.
Readings and resources
Links to relevant texts:
Summary of the module and the Australian Curriculum
The objective of this module was to offer students a way of looking at texts that shows a tight link between culture and language. The aim was for students to begin to consider approaching texts not as content, but as intentions. When working with literary pieces, like nursery rhymes etc., it is imperative that students approach those texts as aesthetic experiences, exploring together the language devices that authors use to make their text wonderful, fun, amazing, creative and worth reading.
This way of approaching texts allows students and teachers to engage the outcomes listed in the Australian Curriculum. As you can see, AC does not define reading as learning words and sounds. It sees it as a complex process, engaging students in learning about the world and tools which allow them to participate in this world in the most appropriate ways.
n this theme we present current research and practical examples to synthesise evidence pertaining to key aspects of effective and successful classroom practices for teaching reading. Participants will be supported through discussion, readings and examples to enable them to analyse and describe key elements from evidence based approaches to teaching reading; compare approaches and critically analyse successful teaching and learning in diverse contexts, including culturally inclusive practices and differentiated teaching and learning
Study tips for module 3:
The lectures below take us slowly to Assignment 2
with Professor Koo Yew Lie from the National University, K Lumpur
Part 1 – http://youtu.be/yDUrI2oFmU4
Part 2 – http://youtu.be/pwQVQEGySWQ
enjoy (lecture with Professor Koo Yew Lie from the National University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia)
Focus Questions for Module Three:
The main issues in research on reading
Using the prescribed textbook for this unit and resources listed below identify chapters with information relevant to the question of the Module and the assignments.
In Module 2, I collected video clips that in my judgment offer a good preparation for this module. Despite differences in perspectives between different literacy models, one thing emerges as the key concern – we need to place student in the centre of our programs, not our beliefs about the student. You may ask, how could we do that? This is the challenge that literacy programs need to take on. Typically, teaching programs make assumptions about the students, and then act on those assumptions, with little concern for the reality of each and every child. A term balanced approach was coined to counteract the early methods which saw reading as a single-dimension skill. Whether the balanced programs on offer do it well or not, in principle they are correct: teachers need to see reading as engaging complex skills. Exploring and facilitaing this complexity allows children to activate a wide range of cognitive networks and process information in more than one way. As Maryanne Wolf says, children are allowed to re-organise information, not acquire.
What is interaction?
Development and Piaget – Here Piage talks about his own work and how he is frequently misunderstood.
Readings and resources
Links to relevant texts:
AND: “According to renowned professor Dr. Jeanne Chall, students proceed through predictable stages of learning to read. During the pre-reading stage up until about 6 years old, children begin to control language. By the time students reach kindergarten they should have some print knowledge and vocabularies of about 6,000 words. Many children can write their names.
In stage 1, children develop a sense of the alphabetic principle and use sound-spelling relationships.
Through grades 2 and 3, the second stage of reading, students develop their decoding skills, their fluency and additional strategies to make meaning from text. Stage 3, which lasts from grades 4 through 8 is a time when students encounter wide varieties of texts and contexts, and all the reading demands that accompany these experiences. They must extend their vocabularies if they are to effectively obtain information from text; the texts also extend the background experiences and strategic habits of readers.
In stages 4 and 5, through high school and college, the language and cognitive demands of readers increase, and they are expected to analyze texts critically and understand multiple points of view. By stage 5, reading is considered truly constructive, that is readers take in significant range of information and construct their own understanding for their own individual uses based on analysis and synthesis.” (Scholastic Red publication, 2002, Link)
Summary of the module
The book Toward an integrated model of reading (Mason,Peterman,Stewart,& Dunning, 2007) presents a comprehensive overview of reading development and models used for teaching reading. The book is a study of two different reading communities and its results show that children’ s early interest and involvemen in reading is one of the main predictors of their literacy success. Linking these stages with strategies emphasising communication and balanced approach to literacy are the key strategies of modern approaches to reading.
Building on the work completed in the previous theme, participants will be supported to apply knowledge of successful teaching and learning to current approaches for teaching reading. Creating a list of key principles in relation to teaching reading will enable students reflect on and deepen their understanding of the application of research to practice. This theme also provides an opportunity to develop links between reading, oral language and high order thinking skills as a part of literate classrooms and practice.
Study tips for module 4:
Examine or save for your own records a link to:
Focus Questions for Module Four:
The information below offers you an overview of reading as a process and of the pedagogy of reading. Choose from the readings those which are relevant to your assignment questions.
What is reading?
In the Evolutionary Roots of the Reading Brain (link in Readings) , Professor Dr. Maryanne Wolf of Tufts University’s Center for Reading and Language Research makes two points: (1) reading is not innate, we are not born to read. AND (2) “the act of reading is vastly complex, and requires that we engage many different parts of the brain because no single area within the brain is responsible for reading”. This very statement has been a core of this unit already. In addition we also know that to facilitate reading for comprehension, we need to teach reading for comprehension. In other words, we should teach reading for communicative purposes, in activities where how students read a text will determine the outcome of the activity (not assessment but the communicative outcome). In that sense, this unit builds on a lot we have covered already. Professor Maryanne Wolf’s lecture Part 1 is included here as a core reading material, in case some of you may have missed it in the previous modules.
On page 8 of this PPT (Maryanne Wolf , The Science of the Reading Brain) http://assets.soprislearning.com/raveoresources/PDFs/FL_adoption/The_Science_of_the_Reading_Brain_Presentation.pdf the slide says that the brain changes with every word. This is very important. Traditionally, people thought that humans learn the meaning of words. But this is not what the brain scan shows. When you say one word, you activate many connections. We do not learn words, we learn their use. And we take long time to do so. It is this emphasis on the use, on communication, on purposeful engagement that is one of the main keys to successful reading.
Also, in this module attention is given to the pedagogy of reading and reading disabilities (largely dyslexia). Teh ppt about critical approach to reading has been taken from a website Teaching reading in Australia http://w3.unisa.edu.au/eds/research/TRApresentations.asp
Accelerated literacy link is provided – I am not a proponent of the model largely because of its heavy emphasis on structure, with much less concern for students’ culture (i.e. for the “compare, contrast and evaluate” learning techniques and resources enabling this kind of explorative learning). As a reuslt, texts tend to be presented as the things to read, not as an opportunity to explore and expand children’s understanding about how culture mitigates what kids understand to be a comprehensible text.
How to teach reading effectively?
The links below exemplify the points made above in a greater detail. It is important that all students browse (at least) through the PPT Crtical Approach to Reading. The presentation makes a number of points important. It critiques the regulatory role of the teacher and the ways in which this role is reinforced through accepted and expected techniques of student management.
When you cannot open links, try to right-click them and open in a new window, or copy and paste the link nto your browser.
Readings and resources
Designing a reading class: A summary of the points made in the above texts (using also text from http://www.earlychildhoodaustralia.org.au/)
Using everyday texts in a literacy program
Placing emphasis on using everyday texts and talks about how she involves parents in her program.
Rewarding is crtical for longterm memory
While true, the concept of reward is not a sweet, but a clear feedback to a student that they did well and good things hapened as a result. In other words, if their reading is part of a communicative pruposeful activity, if they get things right, positive outcomes follow. This is the most critical aspect.
Strategies to help children read
Most of all, students need to perceive the relevance of reading. The link between communication and reading must be made. All other forms of awareness and appreciation of the written word (phonological and phoneme awareness) will flow easier if children know why they are doing all this.
Teaching children about communicative purpose
Create activities that can’t work without reading or writing. E.g. When engaged in creating a Class Book, how is Max to ensure that we all know that his drawing of himself is him? He can sign Max and this makes things easier. You can then enrich these communicative activities with structural activities, as shown in my lectures.
Rhymes, chants, alliteration – phonemic activities
These activities always have a purpose. The purpose is to belong. Kids use these on the playground and you can exploit their popularity in reading classes. For example, you can create an activity where you create an imaginary Max who does not speak English and wants to learn the rhymes. How will he do that? Kids may help you too. So instead of coming with a ready resource, you may create one with the kids. Also you can sing the chants, as we did Sheep OR two song and scramble the text on SmartBoard etc, see our last Sheep Song Activity. The benefits of language play are numerous. Language play involves having fun with the sounds of words, creating new words, and exploring and creating language patterns through rhymes, chants, and alliteration and repetitions.
Teaching children about phonemes
Learning to read begins with children becoming comfortable and familiar with phonemes. They do this in lots of ways including in conversations about books, especially with alphabet and rhyming books and activities. There is a million of phonemic games online. I like the BBC ones, especially writing a postcard http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/wordsandpictures/phonics/postcard/flash/game.shtml But there is more on that site and others http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/wordsandpictures/longvow/poems/flash/fpoem1.shtml The point of those games is by tehmselves they can be boring because they are like doing maths – with left hemisphere highly overloaded. My preference is for giving time to communicative (creative) activities, then creating games related directly to the text in those activities (as in SHEEP activity) and only then when kids want to play, engage them in those phonemic drills (or any other structural exercises). By now they are warmed up , they have a clue that getting the text right is important and they can play.
see ths video:EnglishLessons4U channel , 2012, Spelling and pronunciation, URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UjYKiRqFRss —- It is great as a game or an awareness exercise. But if you introduce to children a concept of difficulty, they will nevr learn the thing that you called difficult. So making fun of silent letters is appropriate at some stage. Introducing this as a very important thing is not because too muc pressure cerates stress in children.
Building children’s vocabularies and story sense
Listening, reading, dramatizing, the telling and retelling of a familiar stories helps young children build their vocabularies and understand the parts of a story and how they are related. Also using vocabulary builder games is important (home, homesick, homeland, home??).
Literacy teaching and learning – From research to practice
What the research says about early literacy teaching and learning – phonics, phonemic awareness, positive adult-child relationships, a print rich environment and varying teaching strategies are among the things that evidence say matter. But this should not mean start with phonics, because you will tire children. Start with creative communicative tasks and the integrate all forms of language exercise in your activities.
Read aloud – a print awareness strategy
Print awareness is an important part of learning to read. But engaging with print does not have to be a book; you can begin with SmartBoards and texts played out on the screen, with children then creating books to those texts/plays. We need to be creative, and a Shared reading activity can be reved up and made more interesting that a teacher reading for 10 minutes or longer with not all kids switched on. It is through interaction that children learn ONLY. So we need to ensure that all activities have a high interactive component and so we can jazz them up as nowadays we have tools for so doing.
Dialogic reading – prompting children to read
When using dialogic reading as a strategy the adult becomes the listener, the questioner and the audience for the child. The adult deliberating prompts the child through questions and help them recall what happened and anticipate and predict what might happen next. You can use this form of activity also with groups of children, does not have to be with an adult only.
Print awareness – setting up the environment
The foundation of all other literacy learning builds upon print awareness. Print awareness is a child’s earliest understanding that written language carries meaning. set up your school and environment in a way that unless kids read, they cannot get things right. So for example, they may have their seats labeled with their names. Or .. you get my point.
Why leave assessment to the end, when it is one of the most important aspects of teaching and learning? Like a good book, we have to lay the foundations, the background, so we can look back making critical links to prior knowledge and view the ‘big picture’.
Assessment in reading enables teachers to make informed decisions about teaching- based on evidence and data collection. In this theme we will develop skills and knowledge that will enable participants to assess student reading and identify better pedagogic support. Many students struggle as readers. Here we seek to use knowledge of what to do to support and scaffold readers into new, effective strategies for engaging reading skills and comprehending texts.
Study tips for module 5:
Focus Questions for Module 5:
Choose from the readings those which are relevant to your assignment questions.The additional titles and links below offer a brief oveview of the subject matter.
Timperley (2008) states ‘The core question is, “What do we as teachers need to learn to promote the learning of our students?”’. This core question defines the relationship between teacher knowledge and student outcomes. Reflective teachers constantly up-date their knowledge and identify areas of need in their own knowledge based on students needs and to ensure quality outcomes for students. In this final theme participants move into the role of practitioner “to develop self –regulatory skills that will enable them to monitor and reflect on the effectiveness of changes they make to their practice (Timperley 2009)”. Course work will be drawn together to support students in their final assignment as they apply their knowledge and understanding to the task of creating a teaching resource.
Study tips for module 6:
A few ideas:
Examples of authentic reading activities
Focus Questions for Module 6:
In this Module, we will spend time reflecting on what we have learnt and what questions we still have unaswered. Identify the questions which you may still have and pose tehm during the on-campus lectures or Collaborate sessions.
Below listed are some texts which may prompt your questions or which may help you summarise your current thinking
Children’s perceptions of their reading ability and epistemic roles
In monologically and dialogically organized bilingual classrooms
(Aukerman, M. ) Aukerman2013_Literacy(1).pdf
“Mounting evidence suggests that how students perceive of their own ability matters considerably to their academic achievement, to their persistence and motivation in school-related tasks, and even to their decision-making about college and career goals (Bandura, Barbaranelli, Caprara, & Pastorelli, 2001; Guthrie, Coddington, & Wigfield, 2009; Usher & Pajares, 2008). Negative self-beliefs about reading ability may be particularly destructive, as these can spur students to disengage from reading for fear that perceived weaknesses will become public, potentially fueling a vicious cycle where students lose experiences with texts that could strengthen both their confidence in their reading and the very abilities they feel they lack (Hall, 2009). Conversely, positive reading self-efficacy beliefs appear to move students toward habits of heart and mind that make them “lifelong readers” who want to read for a range of aesthetic and utilitarian purposes (Guthrie, et al., 2009, p. 320).
Self-perceptions of ability are powerfully shaped by experience and appear to be malleable (Hall, 2012; Johnson, 2005; Usher & Pajares, 2008), suggesting that students’ experiences in the classroom can have important lasting effects on how they think of themselves as readers. Yet, for all the apparent malleability, schools have not yet harnessed effective ways to support students’ perceptions of their reading ability across time. To the contrary, children’s perceived reading self-efficacy generally declines between the ages of 8 and 12, even as their actual reading achievement improves (J. Smith, Smith, Gilmore, & Jameson, 2012). The nature of the instruction students receive in school has been hypothesized to play a major role in this decline, as it does in other subject domains such as mathematics (Usher, 2009).
In most reading classrooms, there is a pervasive emphasis on transmission of understandings, and students primarily answer questions posed to assess what they know about the text. Nystrand (1997) describes such teaching as monologically organized instruction. In monologically organized classrooms, teachers typicallyinitiate with a question, students respond, and teachers evaluate student answers (Mehan, 1979). This traditional IRE pattern of discourse has a strong historical legacy, and remains the “default pattern” in classrooms today (Cazden, 2001, p. 53), even when teachers engage in discussions (Nystrand & Gamoran, 1991). In monologically organized classrooms, the teacher poses questions and offers textual explanations that steer students toward answers sanctioned by the teacher; consequently, the discourse is teacher-dominated. Students, in turn, typically look to the teacher for confirmation that they have correct textual understandings, and seldom dialogue directly with each other about what the text might mean.
In other classrooms, notably rarer, the emphasis is on constructing understandings through dialogue, and the students and teacher talk through ideas together.
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