Historical understanding of women’s body, conception and fertility

Acupuncture in treatment of female infertility




            Theoretical background

            Problem statement (infertility in general)





Research questions (importance of utilization of acupuncture in treatment of infertility?)

Literature Reivew


Ch-1:  Historical understanding of female fertility

Suwen chapter one (emphasis)

The seven year cycles

Arrival of Tiangui

                        Renmai and chongmai


(Big question in this section or maybe later section:  what is tiangui?, what parallels Tiangui in Western medicine?   How does this compared to puberty in western medicine?  Is there a parallel relationship?)

Historical understanding of women’s body, conception and fertility

Sun Si Miao – Women are “Ten times more difficult” to treat

Blood as the central idea of fertility

Regulating menstruation


(include books, authors, documents, etc. which mentions all of the above in this section)

Historical records/authors/documents of Acupuncture and moxibustion in treatment of fertility and infertility


Ch-2:  Women’s physiology in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)

            Reproductive Organs in relationship to fertility

                        Bao Gong (Uterus)





                        Other organs

            Reproductive Substance in relationship to fertility








            Reproductive Channels in relationship to fertility

                        Chongmai (strong emphasis)

                        Renmai (strong emphasis)




                        Bao Mai

                        Other channels

            Menstrual cycle

Menstrual cycle in TCM

Comparison/Parallel relationship between Western and TCM


Ch-3: Etiology, Pathology, Diagnosis and Treatment of Female Infertility in TCM


            Female pathophysiology of infertility

                        Deficiency Patterns

                                    Kidney Jing def

                                    Kidney Yin def

                                    Kidney Yang def

                                    Spleen Qi Def

                                    Liver Blood Def

                                    Kidney Yin and Yang def     

                        Excess/Full Patterns

                                    Qi stagnation

                                                Heart Qi Stag

                                                Liver Qi Stag

                                    Blood Stasis


Female infertility treatment principle and methods (with strong emphasis of acupuncture treatments)

                        Treatment of deficiency patterns

                        Treatment of Excess patterns

                        Treatment of mixed patterns

                        Treatment according to the four phases of the menstrual cycle


Ch-4:  Western medical causes of infertility, diagnosis, and the pathology pattern

presentation in TCM


Pelvic Inflammatory disease

Fibroids and polyps

                        Disorders of ovulation – anovulation/amenorrhea/PCOS

            Blocked Tubes

            Pregnancy loss

            Age and infertility


Ch-5:  Western medicine treatments of infertility(minimal emphasis)

            Drug therapy

            Surgical interventions

            AssitedReproductive Technologies (ART)-Clomid, Intrauterine insemination

(IUI),In vitro fertilization (IVF), Frozen embryo transfers (FET)


Ch-6:  Acupuncture research in in Western causes of Infertility (emphasis)


Pelvic Inflammatory disease

Fibroids and polyps

            Disorders of ovulation – anovulation/amenorrhea/PCOS

            Blocked Tubes

            Pregnancy loss         


Ch-7:  Acupuncture research in ART (emphasis)

            Acupuncture research on embryo transfer

Acupuncture research on enhancing blood flow

            Acupuncture research on ovulation induction

            Acupuncture research on miscarriage prevention

            Acupuncture research on mind/body infertility


Ch-8:  Integration and the future implication of TCM and Western in treatment of

infertility based on the research findings (emphasis – include the possible

application and/or use of Chong/Ren channels in treatment strategy)


Gynecological conditions

Miscarriage prevention/pregnancy Loss

ART (Proposed mechanism of acupuncture supporting IUI, IVF and

FET cycles)

Advanced Age

            Future implications



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