what is special about the phosphate bond and how phosphates interact that allow them to store excess energy?



Below are the posts that responses are needed for. Please keep in mind that the responses should be positive in nature, to extend the discussion panel. Provided reference if possible.


Question 1: ATP as the energy currency of the cell


ATP (adenosine triphosphate) has been called the energy currency of the cell. Briefly outline the cycle by which energy is stored in and released from ATP. Explain the importance of the phosphate bond to this series of processes. Be prepared to discuss how ATP is critically important to cellular chemical processes.


1) Shanae


ATP is a natural molecule, also known as adenosine triphosphate, in your body that is the main energy source currency of cellsMitochondria, an organelle, gathers energy from organic compounds to make most of the ATP, while other ATP can be made in the cytoplasm. ATP is made up of a single nucleotide with two additional energy storing phosphate groups. After cells separate food molecules, some of the energy in the molecules are released as heat, while the remaining energy is stored in molecules of ATP. Cells can use some of that energy and require a adequate amount of ATP to operate properly, for ATP provides cells with the energy they need to perform the activities of life. ATP serves as an important role in biology because cells mainly get their energy from ATP. ATP also helps by bringing energy wherever energy is needed in a cell, and releasing the energy, which can be used to power other chemical reactions, such as the ones that can make molecules. Because cells usually require less energy released from ATP, the energy released from ATP is enough to propel most of a cell’s activities




2) Question from Professor for Question #1 (please be detailed with reference)


Tiffany, what is special about the phosphate bond and how phosphates interact that allow them to store excess energy?




Question 2 -Enzyme action and their importance to life


Enzymes are protein materials that serve to control chemical processes within the cell. Briefly describe how enzymes work and explain their importance to the chemical processes of living organisms. Pick a specific enzyme and describe its function and the importance of that function to life. Discuss how the loss of that enzyme would disrupt living processes? Be prepared to discuss the action and importance of the variety of enzymes used as examples in this discussion.


3) Joanna:


Enzymes are biological molecules (typically proteins) that significantly speed up the rate of virtually all the chemical reactions that take place within the cells. Enzymes are important to the human body by helping digestion and metabolism. Digestive enzymes are responsible for digesting food, assimilating food nutrients into our bodies, and eliminating nonessential and toxic ingredients in our food. Metabolic enzymes are responsible for all biochemical reactions in every cell in our bodies. Those biochemical reactions provide energy for seeing, hearing, thinking, moving, and breathing. If we were to remove these enzymes we will not be able to live. Enzymes enable metabolism to occur by reducing the amount of activation energy required to break the bonds of reactant molecules. Activation energy is the amount that reactants must absorb before a chemical reaction will start. An enzyme lowers the activation energy of a chemical reaction, allowing it to proceed faster.


One type of enzyme is lactase. Lactase is primarily a digestive enzyme that is produced by specialized cells that line the lumen of the small intestine. These cells absorb nutrients within your digestive tract. Lactase’s primary function is to break down a type of sugar called lactose. Lactose is a sugar found in milk and other dairy products. Lactose cannot be absorbed naturally by your body because it is a large sugar compound. Your body needs lactase to break down lactose into two smaller particles called glucose and galactose. Without lactase, lactose remains in your digestive tract and cannot be used by your body.




Pritchard, J. (2015, June 09). What Are the Functions of the Enzyme Lactase? Retrieved


November 26, 2016, from http://www.livestrong.com/article/390563-what-are-the-functions-of-the-enzyme-lactase/


Castro, J. (2014, April 26). How do Enzymes Work? Retrieved November 26, 2016, from


com/45145-how-do-enzymes-work.html” rel=”nofollow”>http://www.livescience.com/45145-how-do-enzymes-work.html


Simon, E. J., Dickey, J. L., Reece, J. B., Hogan, K. A. (1–2015). Campbell Essential


Biology with Physiology, 5th Edition. [South University]. Retrieved from










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