What types of bonds hold the 2 strands of nucleotides in DNA together?

I. DNA Questions: Answer the questions below.   1. What does guanine (G) match up with? _____________ What does adenine (A) match…

I. DNA Questions: Answer the questions below.


1. What does guanine (G) match up with? _____________ What does adenine (A) match up with? __________

2. What is the complementary strand to the following DNA sequence: A-T-G-C-A-A-T-G-C-T-T-G-G-C-A-C


3. What is the monomer for DNA called? ________________________________________________________

4. What are the 3 parts of the DNA monomer? ____________________________________________________

5. What is the shape of DNA? _________________________________________________________________

6. What types of bonds hold the 2 strands of nucleotides in DNA together? _____________________________

7. What makes up the backbone of the DNA molecule? _____________________________________________

8. What makes up the rungs of the DNA molecule? ________________________________________________

9. Who were the two men who discovered the shape of DNA? _______________________________________

10. Who took pictures of DNA using X-ray crystallography/ diffraction? _______________________________

11. Who came up with the base-pairing rule? _____________________________________________________

12. Who came up with the concept of transformation? ______________________________________________


II. RNA vs. DNA: Identify the following characteristics as DNA or RNA.



_____ 1. Contains deoxyribose.

_____ 2. Contains A, T, C, and G

_____ 3. single stranded molecule

_____ 4. double helix

_____ 5. contains ribose

_____ 6. contains A, U, C, G

_____ 7. Found only in the nucleus

_____ 8. Found in the nucleus and cytoplasm

_____ 9. 3 different types: m, t, and r

_____ 10. Shape discovered by Watson & Crick

_____ 11. AUGCCUAGUC

_____ 12. ATCGTTAGCT



III. Types of RNA: Label each type of RNA depicted below (mRNA, tRNA, or rRNA?)












A. _________________               B. _________________                  C. ________________________

1. What process makes RNA? _________________________________________________________________

2. What type of RNA makes up ribosomes? ______________________________________________________

3. What type of RNA carries amino acids to the ribosome? __________________________________________

4. What does the “m” in mRNA stand for and why? ________________________________________________


5. Where in the cell is mRNA made? ___________________________________________________________

6. Where does mRNA go after it leaves the nucleus? _______________________________________________

7. What does the “t” in tRNA stand for and why? __________________________________________________


8. What process occurs in the ribosome? _________________________________________________________

9. What would be the mRNA for the following DNA strand: T-A-C-G-G-C-A-T-C-G-T-A-G-C-T-A?



IV. Genetic Code: Use your codon charts to help you with the questions below.


1. Indicate what amino acid each codon below codes for.


a. AUG ___________________

b. CCC ___________________

c. UAG ___________________

d. GUA ___________________


2. What AMINO ACID must EVERY protein begin with? __________________________________________

3. What CODON must EVERY mRNA begin with? _______________________________________________

4. What would happen if a piece of mRNA did NOT have AUG at the beginning? _______________________


5. What must EVERY protein end with? _________________________________________________________

6. Give the 3 CODONS that every mRNA must end with. ___________________________________________

7. What would happen if a piece of mRNA did NOT have a STOP at the end? ___________________________


8. Give the mRNA and amino acids for the DNA sequence below:

DNA:              T  A  C  G  T  A  C  G  T  A  A  G  C  T  G  A  T  A  A  T  C

mRNA:            ______________________________________________________________________________

Amino Acids:            ______________________________________________________________________________


V. DNA Replication: Answer the questions below.

1. What enzyme unzips DNA by breaking hydrogen bonds between nitrogen bases during DNA replication? ___________________________________

2. What enzyme adds in new nucleotides during DNA replication? ____________________________________

3. DNA replication is described as a ____________________________________ process because half of the original DNA molecule is present in each new DNA molecule.

4. After DNA replication, you should have two DNA molecules that are __________________ (identical or different) from each other.

VI. Protein Synthesis : Label the parts of protein synthesis in the diagram below.



1. What is the term for the 3 bases on the tRNA that matches with the 3 bases on the mRNA? ______________

2. What is the ANTICODON for the following codons:

a. AUG ________       b. UGC ________       c. GGC ________       d. CUA ________

3. What occurs during translation? _____________________________________________________________

4. What occurs during transcription? ____________________________________________________________

5. How are transcription and translation different? _________________________________________________


6. What is the final product of protein synthesis? __________________________________________________

7. What molecule in protein synthesis is only found in the nucleus? ___________________________________

8. What is the name of the enzyme that makes mRNA during transcription? _____________________________



9. Complete the table below using your codon charts!

DNA Triplet Code

mRNA Codon

tRNA codon

Amino Acid

(use mRNA!)






VII. Cell Cycle, Mitosis, & Meiosis – Make sure you can recognize pictures of cells in each phase!

1. Label all parts of the cell cycle below. Show where the Mitotic (M) Phase occurs.

2. What occurs during the following sub-phases of Interphase:

a. G1: _____________________________

b. S: ______________________________

c. G2: _____________________________


3. During what phase of mitosis will chromatin condense into chromosomes? ________________


4. What phase characterizes sister chromatids being pulled apart? ________________________


5. What phase shows chromosomes being lined up in the middle of the cell? ____________________


6. During which phase does the nucleus reappear and we start to see 2 distinct cells? _____________________


7. When the cytoplasm is divided, this is known as ________________________________________________.


8. If the cell cycle is not controlled by CDK and cyclin, what can result? _______________________________


9. When does crossing over occur during meiosis? _________________________________________________


10. Crossing over leads to ____________________ diversity.





# of Divisions    
# of Daughter Cells    
# of Chromosomes    
Diploid or Haploid    
Types of Cells Made    
Identical/Different to Parent Cell    


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